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Insight into the Progress in CAR-T Cell Therapy and Combination with Other Therapies for Glioblastoma

October 10, 2023

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain cancer in adults. It is always resistant to existing treatments, including surgical resection, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, which leads to a dismal prognosis and a high relapse rate. Therefore, novel curative therapies are urgently needed for GBM. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has significantly improved life expectancy for hematological malignancies patients, and thus it increases the interest in applying CAR-T cell therapy for solid tumors. In the recently published research, it is indicated that there are numerous obstacles to achieve clinical benefits for solid tumors, especially for GBM, because of GBM anatomical characteristics (the blood-brain barrier and suppressive tumor microenvironment) and the tumor heterogeneity. CAR-T cells are difficult to penetrate blood-brain barrier, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which induces CAR-T cell exhaustion, impairs CAR-T cell therapy response. Moreover, under the pressure of CAR-T cell therapy, the tumor heterogeneity and tumor plasticity drive tumor evolution and therapy resistance, such as antigen escape. Nonetheless, scientists strive for strategies to overcome these hurdles, including novel CAR-T cell designs and regional delivery. For instance, the structure of multi-antigen-targeted CAR-T cells can enrich CAR-T accumulation in tumor TME and eliminate abundant tumor cells to avoid tumor antigen heterogeneity. Additionally, paired with an immune modifier and one or more stimulating domains, different generation of innovations in the structure and manufacturing of CAR-T cells have improved efficacy and persistence. While single CAR-T cell therapy receives limited clinical survival benefit. Compared with single CAR-T cell therapy, the combination therapies have supplemented the treatment paradigm. Combinatorial treatment methods consolidate the CAR-T cells efficacy by regulating the tumor microenvironment, optimizing the CAR structure, targeting the C

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